Correlation of the Holy Spirit Questionnaire with the Spiritual Well-Being…

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Toyota SAI (HSD)

Correlation of the Holy Spirit with the Spiritual Well-Being and the Spiritual Assessment Inventory.

The Spirit Questionnaire (HSQ HSQ Silsesquioxane

HSQ Health Status

HSQ Home Screening Questionnaire Developmental Materials, Inc.)

HSQ Shield Qualification

HSQ Hatch

HSQ High Super Quality ) is an instrument developed by Ingram and (1994) to measure differences in regarding personal knowledge filling of the Holy Spirit Christians. Past examination of the HSQ that the instrument is a reliable that examines knowledge the Holy Spirit (Hurst, This study included 133 In the context of marketing research, a sample drawn from a population of people from information is collected and used to or confirm marketing strategy. to the HSQ and cor·re·late

v. cor·re·lat·ed . cor·re·lat·ing .

1. To put or bring into causal, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

2. responses to results from the Well-Being spiritual well-being,

n a of peace and contentment stemming an individual’s relationship with the aspects of life. Scale SWbS


southwest by

Noun 1. SWbS — the point that is one point of southwest

southwest by south ) Paloutzian, 1982) and the Spiritual Inventory (SAI) (Hall 1996). Analyses demonstrated correlations between the HSQ and the SWBS and indicating that certain of religious and existential ex·is·ten·tial

1. Of, relating to, or dealing with

2. Based on experience; empirical.

3. Of or as by existentialism or existentialists: well-being and maturity are significantly related to of the Holy Spirit.


The is a crucial and unique doctrine Christianity. God the Father, Jesus Jesus Christ: see Jesus.


40 days after ascended into heaven. Acts 1:1#x2013;11]


Jesus Christ

kind to the forgiving to the sinful. [N.T. the and the Holy Spirit are identified by theology Noun 1. Christian — the teachings of Christian

free grace, grace of grace — (Christian the free and unmerited favor or of God; God’s grace is in the salvation of sinners; there but for the of God go as three separate Persons who are simultaneously God. While the God is a mystery, the ministry of all three is accepted by mainstream Christian and all three Persons of God are active in fashion during the Old and New Testament Sometimes, however, the role of one of the Trinity is more salient the other two. To illustrate, the of God the Father among humanity is prominently seen in the Old Testament whereas Jesus Christ the Son most directly with in the period described in the Gospels. The Spirit, Who is the focus of this is considered to be the primary source which people experience ministry from the time of until the present (Erickson,

While the existence of the Holy in the Christian’s life is well the nature of His presence (e.g. is a source of debate. A perusal of works will reveal a of opinions, and among lay people the of the filling of the Holy Spirit is a source of contentious debate, and confusion. Erickson (1985) that, depending on the environment, the charismatic is either a badge of or a stigma stigma: see pistil.

mark of Cain

God#x2019;s on Cain, a sign of his shame for [O. T. Genesis 4:15]

scarlet (p. 848). While many relate sign gifts as tongues and healing Healing

See Medicine.

Achilles#x2019; spear

had to heal whatever wound it [Gk. Lit. Iliad ]

Augeas#x2019; daughter; noted for in using herbs for healing. Myth. to the filling of the Holy many other groups do

The controversy described above can to division and dissension among communities. Additionally, the presence of the Spirit in one’s life is a issue for those Christians in psychotherapy, treatment of mental and disorders using psychological Psychotherapy, thus, does not physiological interventions, such as therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, it may be used in combination with methods. who are striving to understand spirituality. However, an exhaustive of the literature reveals that is an inadequate emphasis on this Ingram (1992) describes the surrounding sur·round

tr.v. . sur·round·ing . sur·rounds

1. To extend on all of simultaneously; encircle.

2. To enclose or on all sides so as to bar escape or outside

n. this deficit:

Craker a theologian the·o·lo·gi·an

One who is learned in



a person in the study of theology

Noun 1. within the psychological literature, the work of the Holy Spirit and personality as spirit upon and claims that an understanding of work is beyond the limitations of scientific inquiry. While statement of the limits of modern inquiry with regard to the of the Holy Spirit appears it does not mean that a pursuit is in vain vain

vain·er . vain·est

1. Not yielding the outcome; fruitless: a vain

2. Lacking substance or worth: talk.

3. . given that effects of the Holy Spirit’s could potentially be evaluated social science methodology. To it seems clear within that human beings can through the power of the Holy For example, Jesus states while the Spirit cannot be observed, effects produced by the may be seen (John 3:8; RSV RSV syncytial virus; Rous virus.



respiratory virus

RSV 1 Respiratory syncytial see there 2 Rous sarcoma see there ). While it is unfeasible to the Holy Spirit in empirical human variables are within the of investigation. Human attitudes, choices, experiences, and many factors influence the concept of, and with, the Holy Spirit. It is this human perspective the social science aspects of the Spirit can be investigated.

In an early to explain the importance of such within the field of psychology, (1996) presents a model some of the personal and professional of the filling of the Holy Spirit to aspects of Christian living. In model, the role of defense expectancy A mere hope, upon no direct provision, or trust. An expectancy is the possibility of a thing, rather than a vested interest in it.

The term has applied to situations where an hopes and expects to receive generally. cognitive appraisal, and are considered in relation to the work and of the Holy Spirit. Based the concept of biblical humanism philosophical and literary movement in man and his capabilities are the central concern. The was originally restricted to a point of prevalent among thinkers in the and working at a more basic than the gifts of the Spirit, model proposes resources for clients in counseling apply the in the areas of faith, wisdom, and Consistent application of the filling of the Spirit and the attendant fruit are to be more central to … living than the gifts in model. However, once character and power are under the of the Holy Spirit, the gifts increasingly important.

From (1992) earlier theoretical in this area, Ingram and (1994) constructed an instrument to assess the relevant psychological related to the filling of the Holy Dubbed dub  1

1. To tap lightly on the shoulder by way of knighthood.

2. To honor with a new title or

3. as the Holy Spirit Questionnaire this instrument was developed as an measure of the Christian attitudes and considered important in Ingram’s theoretical model. The HSQ stands as the only known instrument attempts to measure psychological related to the Holy Spirit. (1995) conducted the first utilizing the HSQ for the purpose of establishing its psy·cho·met·rics  

n. (used with a verb)

The branch of psychology deals with the design, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the of psychological variables such as aptitude, and properties. Hurst found support for the instrument’s and purports that it is measuring a construct, which appears to be perceived level of knowledge the Holy Spirit. It is unclear these results, however, one’s perceived level of regarding the Holy Spirit to one’s ability to be filled the Spirit. A reasonable investigation would be to compare subjects’ of spiritual well-being and spiritual with their responses on the Overall, it was hypothesized that with greater reported well-being and maturity would a greater perceived level of about their understanding of relationship with the Holy

While the HSQ is still considered to be an instrument, there are measures have been established as indicators of spiritual well-being and maturity. Specifically, Ellison (1982) Spiritual Well-Being (SWBS) has been established as a indicator of one’s sense of in relationship to God as well as one’s sense of life purpose and (Ellison, 1983). The Spiritual Inventory (SAI) is considered to be a indicator of one’s awareness of God maturity) and the nature of that with God (psychological maturity) and Edwards, 1996).

The purpose of study was to establish the concurrent concurrent validity,

n the degree to results from one test with results from different tests. of the HSQ by correlating it the more established SWBS and the psychometric properties of which are below. Specifically, it was hypothesized the predictor variables Noun 1. variable — a variable can be used to predict the value of variable (as in statistical regression)

quantity, variable — a that can assume any of a set of values on the SAI of and Realistic Acceptance would be correlated with the HSQ, Disappointment, Grandiosity grandiosity An exaggerated belief or claims of importance or identity, manifest by of wealth, power, or fame. See episode, Bipolar disorder. and would be negatively correlated.

In with the SWBS, it was hypothesized religious well-being (RWB RWB Without Borders

RWB Red/White/Blue

RWB Winnipeg Ballet

RWB Responsive (3D interactive VR workspace)

RWB Renommierte Burgenland ) would be positively with the HSQ. However, it was that the existential well-being EWB Engineers Without Borders

EWB Workbench (simulation software)

EWB (auf Forderungen; banking, ) scale, which measures sense of life purpose and would not necessarily correlate the exploratory instrument. Finally, it was that none of the demographic would be correlated with the nor were any significant group expected. Consistent with the research, it was expected that the HSQ measure a single construct 1995).



packets were distributed to groups: graduate students at the School of Psychology, Biola History

Originally located in Los Angeles at the corner of Sixth St. and St. the university moved south to its location in suburban La Mirada, in 1959. (n = 24), undergraduate at Biola University (n = 93), and students in psychology (n = 16) who answered a on the Internet. A total of 300 packets distributed and 133 people completed and packets for a 44% return rate. The included 38 males and 95 females, in age from 17 to 58 with a mean age of 23. The composition of the sample included Caucasian, 12% Asian, 7.5% 2.3% African-American, and 3.8% of origins. The majority of the sample from either a Protestant Noun 1. Protestant denomination group of Protestant congregations

Church, Protestant — the churches and denominations collectively or a nondenominational non·de·nom·i·na·tion·al


Not to or associated with a religious

Adj. 1. nondenominational — not to a particular religious denomination; a church (36.1%) affiliation. (5.3%), Jewish Christians Christians (sometimes called Hebrew Christians or Christian ) is a term which can have two an historical one and a contemporary one. meanings are discussed below. and Others (2.3) comprised the of the sample.


The packet of utilized in this study Ingram and Sandvik’s (1994) Spirit Questionnaire (HSQ), Paloutzian’s (1982) Spiritual Being Scale (SWBS), and Edwards’ (1996) Spiritual Inventory (SAI). The SAI includes questions.

The Holy Spirit

Ingram and Sandvik (1994) the HSQ as an exploratory instrument for measuring in attitudes and perceptions regarding the Spirit. The HSQ is a seven item Likert scale Likert A subjective scoring system allows a person being to quantify likes and preferences on a scale, with 1 being the important, relevant, interesting, ho-hum, or other, and 5 being excellent, yeehah important, etc with five points, range from strongly to strongly disagree. The HSQ is negatively meaning that its minimum score of seven indicates agreement with the items, its maximum score of 35 indicates the level of disagreement (the and format of the HSQ are displayed in the Appendix).

(1995) made the first to establish the psychometric properties of the HSQ by data collected from 595 from four different groups in Southern California California . also colloquially as SoCal, is the southern portion of the state of California. Centered on the of Los Angeles and San Diego, Southern is home to nearly 24 million and is the nation’s second most region. Results showed the coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ ( )

1. an expression of the change or effect by variation in certain factors, or of the between two different quantities.

2. internal consistency In statistics and internal consistency is a measure on the correlations between different on the same test (or the same on a larger test). It measures several items that to measure the same general produce similar scores. to be and the split-half reliability coefficient to be When the HSQ was submitted to a factor the first Eigenvalue eigenvalue

In analysis, one of a set of discrete values of a k . in an equation of the form L x = k x. Such equations are particularly useful in differential equations, integral and systems of was over 3; all others less than one. As stated, Hurst (1995) that the HSQ is measuring one underlying factor, which he purports to be perceived knowledge regarding the Spirit. However, since no demographic or assessment data was from the subjects, construct construct validity,

n the degree to an experimentally-determined definition matches the definition. for the HSQ has yet to be established.

Spiritual Scale

The SWBS was developed to the spiritual dimension of the subjective of well-being (Ellison, 1983). (1983) follows Moberg’s conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize

v. con·cep·tu·al·ized . . con·cep·tu·al·iz·es

To form a concept or of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual of spiritual well-being by identifying and horizontal dimensions of the construct. the vertical dimension refers to sense of well-being in relationship to the horizontal dimension is concerned the overall sense of life and satisfaction. On the SWBS, Paloutzian and (1982) term the vertical as religious well-being (RWB) and the dimension as existential well-being The RWB and EWB are combined to yield a total SWB SWB Bonn

SWB Scranton Wilkes-Barre (Pennsylvania

SWB Short Wheel Base

SWB Bell

SWB Subjective Well-Being

SWB Switchboard

SWB Social Well-Being The SWBS is a 20 item self-report scale measure with six that range from Agree to Strongly Disagree.

reliability test-retest reliability A measure of the ability of a psychologic instrument to yield the same for a single Pt at 2 different test which are closely spaced so any variation detected reflects of the instrument coefficients of the SWBS Ellison, 1982) have shown to be .93 (SWB). 96 (RWB), and .86 whereas alpha coefficients internal consistency were .89 87 (RWB), and .78 (EWB). These were obtained by collecting from 206 students at one secular and religious universities. Also, validity is evidenced in the positive Noun 1. positive correlation a correlation in which large of one variable are associated with values of the other and small small; the correlation coefficient is 0 and +1

direct correlation of the SWBS the Purpose in Life Test Ellison, 1982).

A factor was performed to establish the construct of the SWBS (Paloutzian Ellison, As expected, the religious items on the RWB factor, and the existential items on two subfactors, one dealing with direction and the other with satisfaction. In contrast, Ledbetter, Fischer, Vosler-Hunter, and Chew found that neither a one-factor model nor a two-factor Two-factor model

Usually, Black’s zero-beta version of the asset pricing model. It may refer to another type of whereby expected returns are by any two factors. was supported by their Additionally, Ledbetter, Smith and Fischer (1991) ascertained

tr.v. as·cer·tained . as·cer·tain·ing .

1. To discover with certainty, as examination or experimentation. See Synonyms at

2. that the SWBS has a low ceiling, may restrict the range of possible These results indicate the usefulness of the SWBS is limited to low

Spiritual Assessment Inventory

The SAI Edwards, 1996) was designed as a of spiritual maturity. The scale a more spiritual dimension of (awareness) as well as a more psychological dimension (relational which the authors argue is a component of spiritual maturity Edwards, 1996). In addition to the two dimensions, the current version of the SAI has factors: Awareness (A), Acceptance (RA), Disappointment Grandiosity (G), and Instability The SAI consists of 54 items, seven of are two part items. The items are on a point Likert scale ranges from Not at all true to true.

The alpha coefficients internal consistency for the SAI (A. 95; D. 90; RA. 83; G. 73; and I. 84) all indicate lower-bound estimates of scale (Hall Edwards, 1996). The SAI appears to have good validity as demonstrated by the correlational of the SAI subscales with the SWBS, the Revised, the Bell Object Inventory, Defense Styles and the Narcissistic Personality Noun 1. personality — personality by self-love and self-absorption; unrealistic about your own qualities and regard for others Inventory Edwards, 1996).


The SWBS, SAI, and demographic as well as a consent form distributed to the university undergraduates normal class meeting The undergraduates were informed of the fact that participation is A random sample of graduate in the psychology department received packets in their mailboxes a brief cover letter the purpose of the study. Those to participate completed the questionnaires at convenience and returned the packets to a box on campus. The other group of students in the study responded to a on Sagnet, which is a message for students interested in the counseling Counseling psychology as a psychological facilitates personal and interpersonal across the life span a focus on emotional, social, educational, health-related, developmental, and concerns. division of the American Association The American Psychological (APA) is a professional organization psychology in the US. Description and history

The has around 150,000 members and an budget of around $70m. ( A ll P oints A ddressable) Refers to an (bitmapped screen, matrix, in which all bits or cells can be manipulated.

APA — Application Architecture ). Packets were to students who responded to the posting by The questionnaires were scored and an·a·lyze

tr.v. an·a·lyzed . . an·a·lyz·es

1. To examine methodically by into parts and studying interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a analysis of.


1. As stated or by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In with: according to instructions.

3. the described in the following section.

The primary analysis of the data in study was conducted using a regression Multiple regression

The relationship between a dependent and more than one explanatory correlational analysis Noun 1. analysis — the use of statistical to evaluate the strength of the relations variables

statistics — a of applied mathematics concerned the collection and interpretation of quantitative and the use of (MRC See Maximum return ). The MRC is used to determine the utility of a set of variables, for predicting another called the criterion variable. In study the predictor variables the scores on the SWBS, SAI, and variables such as gender, educational level, denominational

1. A large group of religious united under a common and name and organized under a administrative and legal hierarchy.

2. and number of years considered to be a The criterion variable was the overall on the exploratory HSQ. Specifically, the well being (RWB) and well-being (EWB) scales the SWBS were correlated the overall scores on the HSQ. a correlational analysis was conducted the HSQ and each of the five scales on the Awareness (A), Realistic (RA), Disappointment (D), (G), and Instability (I).

The evaluation conducted in this utilized an analysis of variance anova

see analysis of variance.

Analysis of variance, see there ) for the of delineating significant differences the three groups in the study regard to the same predictor and variables as noted above. a factor analysis was conducted to further support for the assertion the HSQ is measuring a single construct; is, it examines people’s reported of knowledge regarding the Holy (Hurst, 1995).

Multiple Correlations

Spiritual Assessment As stated, an MRC was conducted comparing of the five SAI scales with the The multiple regression correlation reveals a significant relationship the two variables (R = .673; df = 5, 122; p = The Pearson correlations for each of the RA (r = -.301), A (r = -.648), D (r = .257), G and I (r = .245) were all significant at the .05 level. As predicted, RA and A were correlated and D and I were negatively The positive correlation of G with the HSQ did not the hypothesis.

The SAI also contained an scale called the Lie (L) scale was being developed as a validity for the SAI. For this reason, a was not formulated for·mu·late

tr.v. . for·mu·lat·ing . for·mu·lates

a. To state as or to a formula.

b. To express in systematic or concepts.

c. for the relationship between the HSQ and the experimental L scale. The Pearson between the L scale and the total HSQ was significant (r = -.486, p = .000). The of this finding will be in the discussion section.

Spiritual Well Being It was hypothesized that religious being (RWB) would be correlated with the total on the HSQ, whereas existential being (EWB) would Results indicate that the two were correlated (R = .428; df = 2, p = .000). Also, the Pearson for both EWB (r = -.325) and RWB (r = -.394) significant at the .01 alpha level.

Item Analyses. Since the HSQ is an instrument that probably a single construct, multiple equations were performed on of the seven items with the variables described above. As in Table 1, the multiple regression analysis reveals a significant between the SAI and each of the individual HSQ Also, only the Pearson for the scales RA and A were significant every HSQ question. Furthermore, the correlation of A was significant with question.

Regarding the SWBS, the regression correlational analysis a significant relationship between the and each of the HSQ questions (see 2). The Pearson correlations were at the .05 alpha level for both EWB and RWB for of the seven individual questions. The correlation for RWB was significant for five of the HSQ (1, 4-7) questions. The part for EWB was significant for the other two questions (2 3).


Holy Spirit In addition to the MRC, a one-way of variance (ANOVA) was performed to the mean total response on the HSQ for of the three groups in the study. The HSQ is scored, meaning that its total score of seven highest agreement with the whereas its maximum score of 35 the highest level of disagreement. The responses on the total HSQ for the Rosemead Biola (13.12), and Internet groups were compared a one-way analysis of variance The results indicate that the are indeed different with to their level of response on the HSQ (F = p = .000).

Tukey’s HSD HSD Human Department

HSD High Speed

HSD Hillsboro School District OR)

HSD Hybrid Synergy Drive

HSD High School Diploma

HSD Society of Delaware test that the Biola under-graduate had a significantly higher level of with the HSQ items than the Rosemead group (p = .001) and the group (p = .016). There was no difference, however, between the responses of the Rosemead and Internet (p = .936).

Spiritual Assessment An ANOVA was performed comparing the groups on each of the five of the SAI. Significant differences found on the A scale (F = 4.57, p = the D scale (F = 24.17, p = .000), and the RA (F = 3.58, p = .031). Also, was a significant difference between the on the Lie scale (F = 12.676, p .000). On the A Tukey’s HSD test revealed the Rosemead group mean was significantly lower than the group mean (72.28, p = but not the Internet group mean The difference between the Biola and the Internet group approaches (p = .09).

With regard to the D the Rosemead group mean was significantly higher than the Biola group mean and the Internet group mean p = .000). There was no significant D difference between the Biola and the Internet group (p = .382). the Rosemead mean on the RA scale was significantly lower than the group mean (30.54, p = There was no difference between the of the Internet group (29.78) and of the Rosemead or Biola group

Finally, on the Lie scale, the Rosemead mean (9.54) was significantly than the Biola group (13.82), but not lower than the group mean (12.02, p = Also, there was no significant between the Biola group and the group (p = .182).

Spiritual Being Scale. The mean on both EWB and RWB for the three groups compared using an ANOVA. were no significant differences the groups on EWB. There was a difference, however, between the responses on the RWB scale (F = 3.185, p = Therefore, a Tukey’s HSD test was comparing the Rosemead group (51.4), the Biola group (56.4), and the Internet group (53.4). The post hoc post hoc


In or of the form of an argument in one event is asserted to be the cause of a event simply by virtue of happened earlier: test that the Rosemead group a significantly lower level of on the RWB scale than the Biola (p = .044). There was no significant however, between the mean of the Biola group and the Internet (p = .448), or the Rosemead group and the group (p = .774).


It was believed that demographic such as age, gender, ethnicity Vox populi Racial African American, Asian, Hispanic. level of education, and of years as a Christian would not be predictor variables for total Age, number of years and level of education all proved to be correlated with each at the .01 alpha level (Education, r = .802; Years Christian, r = .713; Education, Years r = .529). Since the independent in a multiple regression correlation not be highly correlated, it was not appropriate to run the with these three together. Therefore, an analysis of (ANOVA) was used to examine the of gender, denominational affiliation, and with response on the HSQ. As none of the variables was significant, as by the statistics: ethnicity (F = .776; df = 22, 132; p = .748) gender (F = df = 22, 110, 132; p = .414) and affiliation (F = 1.296; df = 22, 110, p = .190).

Reliability and Factor of the HSQ

Results show the alpha reflecting internal consistency to be and the split-half reliability coefficient to be When the HSQ was submitted to a factor the first Eigenvalue was over 3 and all were less than These results are consistent the Hurst (1995) study of the


This project is the known study to utilize the and the first to compare it to well measures. In the first examination of the the purpose was to establish its psychometric (Hurst, 1995). It appears those results that the HSQ a single factor, which is perceived level of knowledge the Holy Spirit. Ingram communication, August 15, 1997) to this assertion by stating it is intended to measure one’s in his/her perceived level of From these assertions the were derived that the HSQ be significantly correlated with of spiritual well being as well as spiritual awareness and maturity (SAI). No hypotheses formed regarding differences groups, and it was believed that variables would not be correlated responses on the HSQ.

As outlined the second questionnaire compared the HSQ was the Spiritual Assessment Inventory Overall, as expected, the SAI was significantly with the HSQ. Also as the A and RA scales were positively with the HSQ, while the D and I were negatively correlated. The G however, was predicted to be negatively but results indicate that it is correlated. The G scale is a measure of that is present in a person’s of their relationship with

The positive correlation between the G of the SAI and the HSQ scores demands careful It may appear that this is contraindicative of the assertion that the HSQ is measuring the level of confidence in understanding of the ministry and functioning of the Spirit. Alternatively, it is possible persons with a high of agreement with HSQ items be overly confident regarding relationship with God or engaging in degree of impression management, explaining the positive relationship of the HSQ and G However, according to the MRC analysis, the correlation of scale A accounted for of the variance in the SAI scores. Therefore, the of awareness of God’s presence the HSQ is the finding most worthy of

By definition, it would seem having knowledge of something require an awareness of it. As stated the HSQ seeks to assess the level of one has in her or his understanding of the function and ministry of the Spirit. However, when alone, it is unclear whether the that one has regarding the Holy translates into the capacity to be with or empowered by Him. The A on the SAI seems to address that somewhat by asking such as I have a sense of how God is working in my and I have a strong impression of presence. These SAI questions specific experiential ex·pe·ri·en·tial

Relating to or derived from

ex·peri·en components of a person’s with God. The significant correlation between the A scale and the HSQ to reflect the subjects’ knowledge the Holy Spirit, and may further an experiential awareness of the Holy presence. This relationship awareness (SAI A scale) and (HSQ) can only be seen as with regard to the HSQ, as it goes beyond the single dimension construct on which all of the HSQ loaded. Expanding the HSQ to include experientially state focused (we items is under consideration for studies with the HSQ, could also potentially some complement to the more trait-oriented focus of the SAI.

It was that the undergraduate students at University would have the level of agreement with the HSQ One factor worthy of consideration is this group is composed of the participants (ages 18-22). people in this age group are at the level of separating from and home and undergoing identity (Arnstein, 1984; Blos, According to Erickson (1968), college students defend the uncertainty and self-doubt they when undergoing individuation

Determination that an individual in one way is numerically identical with or from an individual identified in way (e.g. Venus, known as morning star#x201D; in the morning and evening star#x201D; in the through with a person, group, or Since many of the Biola in the sample came from homes, it is possible that the scores on the HSQ are a reflection of a strong identification that has not undergone the of identity formation that from separation. It is also that the positive correlation of the SAI G scores with the HSQ reflect degree of defensive impression associated with the G scale.

In to the possibility that Biola have not completed the separation/individuation and therefore overidentify with the of their childhood, the fact Biola students are required to a significant number of units in biblical studies Biblical is the academic study of the Judeo-Christian and related texts. For Christianity, the traditionally comprises the New Testament and Old which together are sometimes the Scriptures. could be a contributing to the abovementioned a·bove·men·tioned



The one or ones mentioned result. Since the undergraduates are im·merse

tr.v. im·mersed . . im·mers·es

1. To cover completely in a submerge.

2. To baptize by submerging in

3. in topics related to theology and it is possible that they are far knowledgeable about the Holy than the graduate students who may or may not had this type of undergraduate

It is not possible to tell for certain the data which of these accounts for the higher scores Biola students. The undergraduate however, did score higher on the A of the SAI than either the Rosemead or groups. The A scale indicates the of awareness of God. Again, an in exposure to topics pertaining

intr.v. per·tained . per·tain·ing .

1. To have reference; relate: that pertains to the accident.

2. to God and may lead to an increased awareness of God and an knowledge regarding the Holy Since the A scale taps a experiential component, however, higher scores are more to result from the developmental of these undergraduate subjects as above. All three of these any combination of two, or an unknown may have contributed to the higher undergraduate student scores.

Toyota SAI (HSD)

unexpected finding worthy of is that the Rosemead students had higher scores on the D scale of the SAI either of the other two groups. D is of disappointment in God and is composed of statements indicate feelings of disappointment, anger, and betrayal Betrayal

See Treachery.

Judas Iscariot

who betrays Jesus. [N.T. 26:15]


though steals his friend Valentine#x2019;s reveals his plot and effects his [Br. Also, the Rosemead had a significantly lower level of acceptance (RA) than the two groups. The RA scale examines ability to maintain or restore a with God despite the negative identified by the D scale. Additionally, the students experienced significantly levels of religious well (RWB) than either of the two groups.

The data indicate the Rosemead students are more in their relationship with God and lower levels of religious being. This statement is supported by the fact that the students scored significantly on the Lie (L) scale of the SAI than the Biola The L scale, which is still to be experimental, purports to measure high levels of one’s and behavior. The L scale has a high of face validity face (f#x101;s#x02D1; v#xB7;li#x02D1;#xB7;di#xB7;t#x113;).

n because such as, I pray I beg; I I entreat you; — in asking a question, making a introducing a petition, etc.; as, allow me to go s.

See also: Pray for all my and relatives every day (item are extreme in nature. Also, it is that most people not have high levels of with these items.

It is that the Rosemead group had an time admitting that have negative feelings God than the undergraduates. Indeed, of the undergraduates skipped all of the questions on the D then rated the questions on the RA (which immediately follow the D questions) at a high level. The age level (and assumed of Rosemead students combined the personal self examination in doctoral level clinical could account for the higher D and A, RA, and L scores. Research exploring the of Rosemead alumni might valuable information regarding of the developmental processes of this A yearly assessment could information on trends as well as points of qualitative change in development.

If it is true that the students have difficulty to having negative feelings God, then there may be for the explanation that this is strongly adhering ADHERING. to, or joining; as, adhering to the enemies of the States.

2. The constitution of the United art. 3, s 3, defines treason the United States, to consist in levying war against them or in to their enemies, to the faith of childhood in the midst Adv. 1. in the — the middle or central or point; in the midst of the forest; he walk out in the midst of his piece?

of a developmental crisis. Similarly, the group is not necessarily less than the Rosemead group; they may be making a more naive — Untutored in the of some particular program or one who still tries to do things in an way, rather than the way (in really good designs coincide, but most designs really good in the appropriate report of their opinions. In case, this view not account for the fact that was no significant difference in the level of reported between Biola and the Internet students. It seems the Internet students would be like the Rosemead students the Biola students, given the that both are graduate in psychology.

Upon closer examination, the students are different from the two groups in several ways. all the Internet subjects indicated they considered themselves to be only seven of the sixteen that they would go to because Jesus Christ on a cross for their sins, is the generally accepted Christian and was the response of all Rosemead and Biola The other nine Internet marked different responses, as a loving God would not send to hell. The seven subjects who with the standard Christian were, on the average, seven younger than the Rosemead (mean age of 35), indicating they may be engaged in a different or developmental crisis. The remaining Internet students were on four years younger the Rosemead students.

Although there is also the possibility Biola students and Rosemead are more heavily immersed Christian culture than the students, the most obvious being that the former two attend a Christian university. immersion /im·mer·sion/ ( i-mer´zhun )

1. the of a body into a liquid.

2. the use of the with the object and object both covered with a into the culture could for both the denial of negative and an increased level of negative To explain, feelings can be denied if perceive either real or pressure to behave or think in a way. Those who do not perceive however, can more easily negative feelings to emerge.

As in the results section, the hypotheses about the whole sample generally supported. It was expected the religious well being scale on the SWBS would be correlated with the HSQ. The RWB reportedly measures a sense of being in relation to God. It is that people who are confident in understanding of the ministry and function of the Spirit also experience a sense of well being in to God. To elaborate, Ingram outlines some of the distortions Christians can have about anthropology anthropology, classification and of humans and their society, culturally, historically, and physically. Its contribution to studying the bonds of social relations has been the concept of culture. which an overemphasis o·ver·em·pha·size

tr. intr.v. . o·ver·em·pha·siz·ing . o·ver·em·pha·siz·es

To place too emphasis on or employ too much on guilt, underestimating the significance of created in the image of God or Imago /ima·go/ ( i-ma´go ) pl. ima´goes,   [L.]

1. the … or definitive of an insect.

2. a usually idealized, mental image of a key person in early life. Dei, and of understanding of the new person in Christ. Not completed; not finished; not linked See resolve. guilt and distortions of the of the new person (II Corinthians Noun 1. II — a New Testament book the second epistle from Paul to the church at Corinth

Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Second Epistle to the Corinthians impair im·pair

tr.v. . im·pair·ing . im·pairs

To cause to as in strength, value, or quality: an that impaired my hearing; a storm impairing communications. relationship with God. In however, a keen sense of the Dei, and a proper understanding of can enhance that relationship.

indicate that existential (EWB) was also significantly with the HSQ. This was not predicted because it was not believed overall life satisfaction is for one to have confidence in his or her knowledge of the Spirit. As described previously, analyses Verb 1. factor — to perform a factor of correlational data


analyse, analyze — down into components or features; analyze today’s market of the SWBS have inconsistent results, which may the significant current correlation. it is not necessarily surprising that an sense of life purpose and could be correlated with an understanding of the Spirit-filled life. To if a person is living in the Spirit (the we mode as identified by 1996), the fruit of the Spirit be evident in life experience and The fruit of the Spirit, which are in the passage below, are arguably


1. Open to argument: an question, still unresolved.

2. can be argued plausibly; defensible in three arguable points of characteristics of a satisfying existence. In a person living in the sin mode to be participating in personally destructive This Scripture passage Galatians 5:19-26 provides distinction between the Spirit and the sin mode:

It seems logical a person bearing the fruit of the would also experience a of life purpose and satisfaction. Paul writes, To set the mind on the is …, but to set the mind on the Spirit is and peace (Romans 8:6), that life and peace are of walking with the Spirit.

the majority of the hypotheses were in this study, the investigation have been improved in ways. One difficulty encountered in the results of this study as a result of the uneven nature of the The Biola group was much (n = 93) than the other two groups (Rosemead, n = 24; Internet, n = 16). A for future studies is to seek a diversity among subjects, with regard to age. One of this study is that the of the HSQ has been reversed so that it is now scored. This change ease the analysis of data the HSQ with other inventories as the SAI and SWBS.

Finally, the meanings of findings in this study ambiguous. It seems that a thorough spiritual history of could address some of the raised. Included in this detailed spiritual history be an assessment of how much formal and/or theological education the has had (such as approximate number of or credits). It may also be appropriate to the HSQ so that it contains multiple that address issues than knowledge, possibly an experiential component and its relationship to and confidence regarding the filling of the Spirit. Questions that address how one perceives the we mode of (Ingram, 1996) could be helpful. Perhaps such could clarify why the Rosemead reported lower levels of well being, greater of disappointment in God, and a lower level of confidence in their of the ministry and functioning of the Holy The present study essentially a pilot project in a new area. Due to the sample sizes of the Rosemead and groups (n = 24, 16 respectively) compared the Biola group (n = 93), as as the modest overall return of 44%, the data must not be These preliminary results are but can be viewed as only suggestive


a. Tending to suggest; artifacts suggestive of an ancient

b. and heuristic A method of problem using exploration and trial and methods. Heuristic program provides a framework for solving the in contrast with a fixed set of (algorithmic) that cannot

1. in nature until additional supports or modifies the interpretations of the reported herein for the HSQ. In any much more quantitative and work needs to be done to and clarify results in this as the present study clearly



Circle the appropriate under each question, write the number in the space at the


(1) It should be that since the HSQ is negatively correlations with positive indicate a negative relationship and with negative numbers a positive relationship.

(1) The New Oxford Bible The Oxford Annotated ( OAB ) is a study Bible published by the University Press (OUP). The and the study material feature academic research from perspectives, with contributors mainline Protestant, Roman and Jewish (Revised Standard Re·vised Standard Version

A American version of the English a revision of the American Standard completed in 1952 and further in 1989.

Noun 1. ). (1973). New New York, state, United

New York, Middle Atlantic of the United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania Lakes Erie and Ontario and the province of. Oxford University


Arnstein, R.L. Developmental issues for college Psychiatric psy·chi·at·ric


Of or to psychiatry.

psychiatric adjective to psychiatry, mental disorders 14, 647-652.

Blos, P. (1946). counseling of the college student. Journal of Orthopsychiatry or·tho·psy·chi·a·try

The study, treatment, and prevention of and behavioral problems, especially of that arise during development. 16, 571-580.

Craker, (1976). The Holy Spirit and personality. Journal of Psychology 4(4), 269-279.

Ellison, (1983). Spiritual well-being: and measurement. Journal of Psychology 11(4), 330-340.

Ellison, Paloutzian, R.F. (1982). Well-Being Scale. (Available Life Advance, Inc. 81 St. Nyack, NY 10960).

Erikson, (1968). Identity: youth and New York: Norton.

Erickson, (1985). Christian Theology. Rapids Grand Rapids, (1990 pop. 189,126), of Kent co. SW central Mich. on the River; inc. 1850. The largest city in the state, it is a wholesale, and industrial center for an that yields fruit, products, farm produce. Book House.

Hall, Edwards, K.J. (1996). Assessment Inventory. (available Rosemead School of Psychology, University, 13800 Biola La Mirada La Mirada (lä city (1990 pop. Los Angeles co. S Calif.; inc. La Mirada derives from the for the view, referring to the panoramic of the surrounding valleys from the city’s hills. CA, 90639).

T.W. Edwards, K.J. August). A factor analytic 1. factor analytic — of or to or the product of factor analysis

analytical revision of the spiritual inventory and further evidence of its validity. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Association, Toronto, Ontario.

D.B. (1995) Empirical of the Holy Spirit Questionnaire. manuscript manuscript, a handwritten as distinguished from printing. The manuscripts, those found in tombs, were written on the earliest dates from B.C. Rosemead School of Biola University.

Ingram, (1996). Psychological aspects of the of the Holy Spirit: a preliminary of post-redemptive personality functioning. of Psychology Theology, 24, 104-113.

J.A. Sandvik, E. (1994). The Spirit Questionnaire. (available Rosemead School of Psychology, University, 13800 Biola La Mirada, CA, 90639).

Ingram, (1992, November). Practical of the filling of the Holy Spirit in living and counseling. Paper 2nd International Congress on Christian Christian counseling is counseling by a professional counselor who upholds the value system, beliefs and The unifying factor is the therapist, him or who has integrated Christianity (Christ-centered and the research of psychology. Atlanta, GA.

M.F. Smith, L.A. J.D. Vosler-Hunter, W.L. G.P. (1991). An evaluation of the validity of the Spiritual Well-Being a confirmatory factor analytic Journal of Psychology Theology. 19,

Ledbetter, M.F. Smith, Vosler-Hunter, W.L. Fischer, (1991). An evaluation of the research and usefulness of the Spiritual Well-Being Journal of Psychology Theology. 19,

Moberg, D.O. (1979). The of social indicators of spiritual for quality of life research. In Moberg (Ed.), Spiritual Sociological perspectives Sociological is the official publication of the Pacific Association. It is a peer-reviewed quarterly published by University of California in Berkeley, California. It was first in 1957. Washington, D.C. Press of America.

Paloutzian, Ellison, C.W. (1982). spiritual well-being and the quality of In L.A. Peplau and D. Perman Loneliness: A sourcebook of current research and therapy (pp. New York: Wiley. 224-237.


Rosemead of Psychology

Biola University

FEE, JENNIFER L. Address: Philadelphia St. Suite 511, CA 90601. Title: Licensed psy·chol·o·gist

A person trained and to perform psychological research, and therapy.

psychologist ; Psychology Vanguard Vanguard

Any of three U.S. experimental satellites. I (1958), the second U.S. placed in orbit around (after Explorer 1), was a tiny (1.47-kg) sphere with two transmitters. University. Degrees: BA, College Messiah College is a liberal arts college of the and applied arts and sciences approximately 3,000 undergraduate in over 60 majors/courses of study, in the rolling hills of south Pennsylvania in the United States. ; MS, University; PsyD, Rosemead of Psychology. Specializations: Cognitive-behavioral Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Definition

therapy is an action-oriented form of therapy that assumes maladaptive, or faulty, thinking cause maladaptive behavior and emotions. ; anxiety, panic, and Phobias Definition

A phobia is an but unrealistic fear that can with the ability to socialize, or go about everyday life, on by an object, event or situation. ; between faith and fear; cognitivebehavioral therapy to graduate

INGRAM, JOHN A. Address: School of Psychology, Biola 13800 Biola Avenue, La CA 90639-0001. Title: Professor of Degrees: BA, Oklahoma Baptist OBU Mission Statement

Pursue excellence

Integrate faith all areas of knowledge

Engage a world

Live worthy of the calling of God in Christ


Baptist University was ranked in the top by U.S. ; MA, East Carolina East Carolina University is a coeducational, intensive research located in Greenville, North United States. Named Carolina University by statue and known as ECU or East Carolina ; University of South Carolina article is about the University of Carolina in Columbia. You may be looking for a of South Carolina satellite

• •. Specializations: Cognitive-behavioral therapy, of psychology, theology, and philosophy, and of the Holy Spirit and spiritual For the NES game, see Spiritual Warfare

are various opinions and definitions for Warfare, however it can be summed up in the quote: Some speak of Warfare as being] the struggle good and evil.

The authors to thank Jessica Hamilton for in preparation of the final manuscript. concerning this article may be to John A. Ingram, Rosemead of Psychology, Biola University, Biola Avenue, La Mirada, CA, Email:

COPYRIGHT Rosemead School of Psychology

No of this article can be reproduced the express written permission the copyright holder.

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