Hiroshima — Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hiroshima ( 広島市. ? ) ( listen ( help · info ) ) is the of Hiroshima Prefecture. and the largest in the Chūgoku region of western the largest island of Japan. It is known as the first city in to be targeted by a nuclear weapon the United States Army Air (USAAF) dropped an atomic on it at 8:15 a.m. on August 6, near the end of World War II. [ 1 ] The city’s 広島, means Wide Island in

Sengoku period (1589–1871) [ ]

Imperial period (1871–1939) [ ]

Map of Hiroshima City in the 1930s edition)

After the han was abolished in the city became the capital of Prefecture. Hiroshima became a urban center during the period as the Japanese economy from primarily rural to industries. During the 1870s, one of the government-sponsored English language was established in Hiroshima. [ 5 ] Ujina was constructed through the efforts of Governor Sadaaki Senda in the allowing Hiroshima to become an port city.

The Sanyo Railway was extended to in 1894, and a rail line the main station to the harbor was for military transportation during the Sino-Japanese War. [ 6 ] During war, the Japanese government temporarily to Hiroshima, and Emperor maintained his headquarters at Hiroshima from September 15, 1894 to 27, 1895. [ 6 ] The significance of Hiroshima for the government can be discerned from the that the first round of between Chinese and Japanese to end the Sino-Japanese War was held in Hiroshima February 1 to February 4, 1895. [ 7 ] New plants, including cotton were established in Hiroshima in the 19th century. [ 8 ] Further in Hiroshima was stimulated during the War in 1904, which required and production of military supplies. The Prefectural Commercial Exhibition was constructed in 1915 as a center for and exhibition of new products. Later, its was changed to Hiroshima Prefectural Exhibition Hall, and again to Prefectural Industrial Promotion [ 9 ]

During World War I. Hiroshima a focal point of military as the Japanese government entered the war on the side. About 500 German of war were held in Ninoshima in Hiroshima Bay. [ 10 ] The growth of as a city continued after the World War, as the city now the attention of the Catholic Church, and on May 4, an Apostolic Vicar was appointed for city. [ 11 ]

World War II and Nuclear Bombing [ edit ]

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During World War II. the 2nd Army and Chugoku Regional were headquartered in Hiroshima, and the Marine Headquarters was located at port. The city also had depots of military supplies, and was a key for shipping. [ 12 ]

The bombing of Tokyo and cities in Japan during War II caused widespread destruction and of thousands of deaths. [ 13 ] For example, an urban area of 128,000, was fully destroyed, and incendiary on Tokyo claimed the lives of people. There were no air raids in Hiroshima. However, the was certainly there and to protect potential firebombings in Hiroshima, (between 11–14 years) mobilized to demolish houses and firebreaks. [ 14 ]

On Monday, August 6, 1945, at a.m. the nuclear bomb Boy was dropped on Hiroshima by an American bomber. the Enola Gay . flown by Paul Tibbets. [ 15 ] directly an estimated 80,000 people. By the end of the injury and radiation brought casualties to 90,000–140,000. [ 16 ] The population the bombing was around 340,000 to Approximately 69% of the city’s buildings completely destroyed, and another 7% damaged.

The public release of footage of the city post and some of the Atomic Bomb Commission research, about the effects of the attack, was restricted the occupation of Japan. and much of information was censored until the of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in restoring control to the Japanese. [ 17 ]

However, worldwide, only the sensitive, and detailed weapons information was censored following the There was no censorship of accounts by survivors (Hibakusha ). For example, the Hiroshima written by Pulitzer winner John Hersey. was featured in article form and in the popular magazine The New Yorker . [ 18 ] on 31 1946. It is reported to have Tokyo, in English, at least by 1947 and the translated version was in Japan in 1949. [ 19 ] Despite the that the article was planned to be over four issues, made up the entire contents of one of the magazine. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Hiroshima narrates the of six bomb survivors immediately to and for months after the dropping of the Boy bomb. [ 18 ] [ 22 ]

The oleander is the official flower of the of Hiroshima because it was the first to again after the explosion of the bomb in 1945. [ 23 ]

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