Toyota Prius (2004)

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Toyota Motor Triathlon Race Car

Toyota Prius

The Toyota is the world’s first commercially and marketed hybrid automobile. It on sale in Japan in 1997, and in 2001. By the end of 2003, nearly units had been produced for in Japan, Europe, and North In Latin, prius means or first. The Prius (2000 to model years) is certified as a Ultra Low Emission Vehicle by the California Air Resources Board With the 2004 model, the was redesigned as a midsize hatchback, and as an Advanced Technology Partial vehicle (AT-PZEV). For North it used to slot between the and Corolla in the lineup, but now slots the Corolla and Camry since the generation of this vehicle was Prius has won numerous awards Car of the Year awards for Europe, and North America.

The Prius has called a true hybrid designed from the bottom up. goal for the Prius was to reduce the of pollutants it produced and to be as energy-efficient as They used several to try to achieve this goal,

More efficient use of the internal engine (ICE), reducing consumption. The 1NZ-FXE engine the more efficient Atkinson instead of the more common cycle;

Two electric motor/generators, 50 kW (67 hp) @ 1,200 to 1,540 rpm and 400 N·m ft·lbf) torque from 0 to rpm, which significantly to performance economy;

50 kW IGBT controlled by a 32-bit microprocessor, efficiently converts power the batteries and the motor/generators.

Lower of drag at 0.26 (0.29 for model), reducing air resistance, at higher speeds;

Lower tires on the 2000 model, road friction;

Regenerative a process for recovering kinetic when braking or traveling a slope and storing it as electrical in the traction battery for later use reducing wear and tear on the pads;

Sealed 168-cell metal hydride (NiMH) providing 201.6 volts;

variable transmission the Prius not use a typical CVT; Toyota it the Power Split Device. The motors and gasoline engine are to a planetary gear set which is engaged, and there is no shifting.

resin gasoline tank, the amount of hydrocarbon emissions in the of escaped gasoline vapor;

Vacuum flask coolant system that stores hot coolant, then reuses it to warm-up time.

Weight for example the hatch and hood are of aluminium instead of steel.

Toyota Prius

Touted of the Prius over previous designs include never to be plugged in, as all energy ultimately from the gasoline engine. means it drives like a ICE automobile, with the onboard taking care of shifting to and from the engine and motors, and determining when to charge the as well as the most efficient use of the or the electric motors (or both) on driving conditions. This means that one cannot use from external sources; consider this to be a serious The Prius recovers energy would be otherwise wasted: braking, the car’s kinetic is partly recovered to recharge the instead of being wasted as This also reduces wear.

The engine can shut once it has warmed up and the catalytic in the exhaust system has reached temperature. The Prius can then be on electric power only; is sometimes referred to as stealth due to the lack of engine noise. further reduces gasoline and wear and tear on the engine. driving conditions demand power from the engine, it up automatically.

The on-board computer that the engine runs the most efficient conditions. a gasoline engine runs when throttle is half-open, a choking operation conditions. effect, called pumping is a major reason for the inefficiency of engines compared to diesel The Prius minimizes the pumping by running the gasoline engine at torque range with fully open. Drive-by-wire control technology and what calls Hybrid Synergy (a simple torque combiner, strong electric drive, and control) are essential in this control.

As well as the immediate of reducing fuel consumption and stopping the engine also the performance of the catalytic converter, as in a vehicle the exhaust gases an idling engine tend to the catalysts below their temperature.

Unlike in conventional frequent starting up and shutting of the engine causes neither wear and tear nor emission because the drive motors enough power to quickly and spin the engine to optimal rpm 1,000) before the engine begins to fire up. This wear when the engine is (with fuel and spark) at low rpm, as happens in most

For any car, aerodynamic losses due to are much greater on the highway in low speed city driving. A car nonetheless gets worse in city driving because its is far less efficient at low power, as when stopped in traffic, and it must frequently dump its energy into the brakes stop-and-go driving. The Prius better fuel efficiency in dynamometer cycles because the can shut down instead of at low power, and run solely off the battery at low and when stopped (including the air heating/cooling system and the power Also, the car’s kinetic can be captured when braking, and in the battery. According to EPA tests, the Prius gets 60 mpg (US) in the dynamometer tests, compared 51 on the highway, and Natural Resources estimates 58.8 mpg (US) L/100 km) in the city and 56.0 L/100 km) on the highway. (Owing to of these tests, few drivers these mileage values in suburban circumstances, but real performance with careful can come close.) This the greatest advantages of a hybrid are in city driving, though including driving style, air use, and short trips may some of this advantage. The has less of an advantage in higher open road driving of intercity driving, yet obtains mileage under these since it can use a smaller and more engine than would be required (because the battery and motor can provide the extra power needed for passing and hill climbing).

2004 to Prius

The Prius 2004 was a complete redesign of the previous of Prius. The new model is based on the new generation) Hybrid Synergy (HSD or also known as replacing the earlier Toyota System (THS) technology. The generation (1997 to 2003) not run its air conditioning 100% of the time the engine was running. While the engine would need to every minute or so if the air conditioning was In contrast, the 2004 model an all-electric compressor for cooling. not only allowed the use of air conditioning the engine starting from to time when the car was completely it also allowed more use of the stealth mode (operation on motor only).

Its drag coefficient of 0.26 was the second-lowest in the industry, after the Honda Insight at 0.25.

braking was greatly improved, so little upon the friction-type (except for panic stops) some Toyota technicians that the original brake might well last for the of the car.

The 2004 Prius as a midsize car with more than the previous compact, as a five-door model (four plus a rear hatch). In the car remained conveniently narrow on the rather flat sided, and tall (several inches than a Camry). The profile was more continuous, with a sloping nose transitioning to a sloped windshield and an arcing ending in a cut-off Kammback. The height allowed a more seating position and a higher eye giving a better view of the to the driver. There was also a amount of additional rear-seat leg resembling that available in a larger vehicle. Fold rear seats with a split made for easy of most parcels.

With a and lower voltage NiMH and a boost converter to step the up to 500 V, the 2004 model was more (2 seconds faster in 0 to 96 km/h and is 15% more fuel efficient the previous generation Prius, 60 miles per US gallon (4.3 km) city and 51 miles per US gallon L/100 km) highway (according to the When driven appropriately, and mixed suburban drivers are fuel consumption of 45 to 50 miles per US (5.2 to 4.7 L/100 km).

Toyota Motor Triathlon Race Car

The (MFD) shows fuel bars for each five segment of driving and this can economical driving. The display indicates instantaneous fuel which is useful for detecting the vehicle has switched from to electric + ICE. At this it can usually be advantageous to accelerate rather than lug the vehicle, in an to get to a more favorable location or range for electric-only mode.

An option called the Smart Key (SKS) eliminates the traditional key. The smart key, resembles a conventional keyless remote, has buttons to remotely and unlock the door, as well as the alarm system. It is not necessary to use any of the to utilize the SKS system. Approaching to one metre of the car while in-possession of the key inside a pocket or purse) the interior dome lights to in (if the switches are at the DOOR position). the person with the key in their touches either of the front or the rear hatchback door, door is immediately unlocked and can be There are three settings in the Smart Key System (SKS) can with: driver’s door mode, single door mode, and all doors unlocking Once inside, the car may be started by the POWER button while the brake pedal, with the fob safely tucked away your pocket or purse. To the car, push the POWER again. Once parked, the car can be by a pushing a black button on the door handle. The SKS system detect keys left the vehicle when powered-off, and not allow the vehicle to be locked in situation.

There is no conventional switch which needs to be to start the Prius, that having been replaced by a round POWER button on the With the SKS models, the driver needs to sit down inside the (with the fob in their possession), the brake with their and push the POWER button to the vehicle. On cars which are not with SKS, the driver the lock/unlock buttons on the fob, and the remote fob into a slot in the to allow the car to start.

The vehicle is as a SULEV (Super Ultra Low Vehicle), 90% cleaner than gasoline-only automobiles. It comes an Advanced Technology Partial Emission Vehicle (AT-PZEV) by CARB (California Air Resources

As an interesting side note, an package offered in Japan and gives the Prius the ability to parallel and reverse parking by the on-board computer the first such a capability has been on a production vehicle. Eighty of the Prius buyers in Japan chosen this option. The is not intelligent though, particularly machine vision which allow avoidance of obstructions or so it is very limited.

Passengers of the Prius (TSpirit only, not T3 or T4) can use their Bluetooth-enabled via the car’s audio system taking the phone out of their However, not all Bluetooth phones are with the Prius.

The 2006 introduced some minor changes, along with airbags, a rear-view camera, an audio system, and a new higher-resolution LCD

Aftermarket upgrades

Various for the Prius include extra chargers, stealth mode and panels.

When the vehicle is with the start button, it is to drive immediately with the motor, while electric warm the engine with saved hot engine coolant, the internal combustion engine is The delay between starting the car and the internal combustion engine is seven seconds. The Asian and versions of this vehicle a button labeled EV that Electric Vehicle mode startup, under most driving conditions. The North model does not have the EV although the EV mode is still internally by the Prius high-voltage computer. While some speculated that EV mode was not on North American models in the of retaining the warranted battery of 100,000 miles (160,000 km) in the miles (240,000 km) in California and other statesengineers note EV mode is automatically overridden the battery requires recharging the internal combustion engine. The is designed to protect the battery extreme discharge as well as and will utilize the engine to maintain the optimum conditions for a battery life. In addition to at online discussion groups, the Project offers instructions for who wish to enable the button, and components provider Coastal Technologies offers a kit.


Evolving from the project, The California Cars (CalCars) converted a Prius in adding larger batteries, and companies EDrive Systems in the USA and Projects in the UK announced plans to conversion kits in 2006. The recent versions use a new, advanced safe-format Lithium from Valence Technology NASDAQ) called Saphion. The density and far more efficient of these batteries provide 20x the available power of the standard battery pack but at only the weight. Tests show it of acheiving 30 miles (50 km) in all electric at speeds below 34mph (55 The internal combustion engine only at higher speeds or extra acceleration is needed. economy (as demonstrated for several is improved to 100-160mpg (US) km/liter) source article on driving conditions. City may be possible without using the ICE at eliminating the use of almost all liquid in exchange for electrical energy.

CalCars initiated efforts to the idea of plug-in hybrids to be by automakers, and documented the emissions of plug-in hybrids not only on clean power grid but on the national (50% coal-fueled) grid. This addition be relatively ineffective without battery capacity or reprogramming to completely discharge the batteries would perhaps be detrimental to service life).

Recently has announced that it intends to a plug in hybrid vehicle at an future time.

Solar provide additional energy to the while the vehicle is in motion or away from the grid. panels are also useful the Prius is parked for extended of time in a sunny location if it have a charger or is not connected to a outlet. Some drivers claimed up to 10% mileage improvements the addition of their solar although individual results are on the size and efficiency of the solar as well as weather conditions. in Australia and the southwestern states for see the some of the largest mileage on their Prius. One advantage of panels is that they do not out or depreciate like ICE components.

Toyota Motor Triathlon Race Car
Toyota Motor Triathlon Race Car
Toyota Motor Triathlon Race Car
Toyota Motor Triathlon Race Car


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