Toyota Crown

4 Июн 2015 | Author: | No comments yet »
Toyota Crown Athlete

It was the 1955 Crown that Toyota Motor Co. as a proper car manufacturer. Prior to this Toyota had supplied essentially chassis, on which specialist mounted crude hand-formed and sold them as Toyopets to fleet users. Toyota’s Japanese competitors at the time producing passenger car models license, which included Austin, Isuzu’s Hilman, Renault 4CV, and Mitsubishi Industries’ Kaiser J.

Eiji retired chairman of Toyota, was de chief engineer in those days. He confided that it was not nationalistic obstinacy that the design and development of the Crown. The company simply could not the complications of having the Crown and a project offered by a foreign such as VW. The Crown, being under the stewardship of the late and project engineer Kenya showed promise.

The Crown the Pacific in 1957, only to America’s vast land and traffic too arduous for a compact powered by a modest pushrod engine. Eiji Toyodta on a hasty retreat from the market to revisit the company’s car efforts. This crown of Toyota cars has since home for 10 generations, to grow in and sales volume, attracting the Japanese.

The 11 th generation Crown is exclusively at the Japanese market. The two series, the Royal and the upscale has been joined by a third called Athlete, a sporty of the former. The Royal/Athlete is on the shorter of Toyota’s front-engine, rear-wheel-drive on a 2780-mm (109-in) wheelbase with the Japan-only Progres. The platform is shared with the GS300/400; however, its wheelbase has stretched to 2800 mm (110 Their respective unit-body are new, brought up to the latest global outstanding assessment standards, meeting the crash of Europe, the U.S. and Japan. The torsional rigidity has been by 25%. The sedan’s 0.29 coefficient is achieved by the addition of ahead of the front and rear a flat underfloor covering, and a under-nose section.

The Royal/Athlete is 4820 mm (190 in) 1765 mm (69 in) wide, and 1495 mm (59 in) with masses ranging 1815 to 1875 kg (4000 to lb). The Majesta measures mm (193 in) long, 1795 mm (71 in) and 1455 mm (57 in) tall, and mass between 1660 and 1780 kg and 3924 lb).

The rear-wheel-drive engine center has been back by 40 mm (1.6 in), and the by 50 mm (2 in). The 70-L (18.5-gal) tank has been relocated behind the rear seat to it, gathering a larger mechanical within the wheelbase for improved (All-wheel-drive models’ engine are unchanged.) Interior dimensions been increased in all directions, the cabin length gaining 40 mm in) and the Majesta’s 20 mm (0.8 in), the luggage volume is enlarged to 530 L ft 3 ) within the same overall as their predecessors—no mean for Toyota’s packaging engineers.

The chassis features all independent The front suspension is by double with a high-mounted upper At the rear, an upper L-arm, twin unequal-length splayed links and a toe-control link the double wishbones. The top-of-the model is equipped with a electronically controlled, variable absorber system called TEMS (the symbol for an advanced control logic Hardy-Infinity and TEMS for Toyota modulated suspension). The top Majesta an electronically controlled pneumatic system, combined with the centrally controlled by the nonlinear logic. The Majesta’s semi-active functions as if there are two hypothetical absorbers on the car’s outboard exercising precise control of and bounce and maintaining an even

The top V8-powered Majesta model is with active rear-wheel-steering – an electronically controlled, electrically system that supports the by stabilizing the vehicle’s behavior in a maneuver. It induces understeer by steering the rear wheels in the direction as the front.

The range’s powertrain is Toyota’s JZ inline engine family. The 1JZ-GE is a aspirated DOHC 2491-cm 3 with VVT-i (intelligent intake valve timing) and 24 rated at 147 kW (200 hp) at 6000 rpm and 255 (188 lb#149;ft) at 4000 This engine powers the rear- and all-wheel-drive Royal/Athlete. up the power ladder is the type 2997-cm 3 version for the all-wheel-drive producing 162 kW (220 hp) at 5800 rpm and 294 (217 lb#149;ft) at 3800 The performance Athlete is powered by a version of the 1JZ 2.5-liter unit a GTE suffix, putting out 206 kW (280 hp) at rpm and 378 N#149;m (279 lb#149;ft) at rpm.

A significant addition to the JZ family of is the 2JZ-FSE, a DOHC 24-valve unit, which is Toyota’s D4 direct-injection gasoline engine. As its indicates, it shares its lower with the 2997-cm 3 2JZ-GE with 86.0-mm (3.39-in) and stroke. The D4 upper half is to this engine, and represents the of Toyota’s direct-injection art. The power and torque outputs are the as the port-injection 2JZ-GE’s at 162 kW (220 hp) and 294 (217 lb#149;ft), but at lower speeds of 5600 rpm and 3600 respectively. The engine’s compression is a higher 11.3:1 vs. the port unit’s 10.5:1, with engines using regular-grade gasoline.

The original D4 3S-FSE I4 engine burns an ultra-lean (as lean as a 50:1 air/fuel in a stratified-charge combustion zone. The new does not take the lean-burn that far, operating at an ratio ranging from to 40:1. In this zone, is injected in the latter part of the compression stroke by the new high-pressure injector. Fuel mist a stable, combustible mixture to the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio) around the spark plug. The propagates to the ultra-lean mixtures this stratum. The overall ratio can be as lean as 40:1.

Toyota Crown Athlete

The new 2JZ-FSE’s stratified charge envelope has been extended to a vehicle speed range of 120 km/h, adequately covering real-life highway cruising. economy, quoted at 11.4 (27 mpg) on Japan’s urban mode for the Royal, is about 21% to the previous port-injection model. At conditions such as rapid and high-speed running, the engine in the stoichiometric zone with injected during the intake One of the two straight intake ports is with a flow-control valve, its and closing improving cylinder and combustion efficiency. During high-load operation, this is fully closed, with the air through the single open accelerating flow speed and cylinder filling. The flow-control is fully opened during high-load operation, introducing air. A transient weak charge zone, with an ratio of 18:1 through ensures a smooth transition ultra-lean stratified-charge operation and combustion. Fuel is split-injected during the intake stroke and the during the compression stroke.

The D4 engine relies heavily on a air-swirl motion generated by two port shapes for each a helical port with a protrusion just before the valve opening and a straight the latter fitted with a valve. During ultra-lean this valve is closed, the air in from the helical port. with the intricately shaped, deep-bowl piston, a combustible strata is formed around the plug.

The new D4’s ports are both relying less on the air’s motion, and the piston’s asymmetrical cavity is an elongated shape the original D4’s heart-shaped The high-pressure plunger-type fuel pump is driven by the exhaust It generates pressures between 8 and 13 MPa and 1890 psi).

The new D4 employs a new nozzle injector. It has a single hole, an arched slit of 0.16-mm (0.006-in) width. The nozzle injector fans out pressurized fuel spray, forms a stable mist around the spark plug the aid of air turbulence. A cold-start injector fuel into the plenum to aid startability.

A single stage belt drives the exhaust The exhaust camshaft carries a VVT-i continuously variable valve timing device and the intake camshaft via a split and scissors geartrain. The VVT-i has a timing range of 40°. The acts on valves via shimless tappets. The intake and exhaust are inclined at a narrow included of 22.6°, vs. the port-injected 2JZ-GE’s Valve diameters are 33.5 mm in) for intake and 28.0 mm (1.10 in) for vs. the 2JZ-GE’s 33.5 mm (1.32 in) and 29 mm in), respectively. Lifts are 6.0 mm in) for either engine type. The system employs a variable-length (acoustic control induction to exploit the incoming air’s to obtain inertia charge

The top-of-the-series Majesta shares its 4.0-liter V8 engine with camshafts and 32 valves with the LS/GS400. This engine 206 kW (280 hp) at 6000 rpm and 402 N#149;m lb#149;ft) at 4000 rpm. smart five-speed automatic is in all models except the Royal 2.5 and models, which are equipped a four-speed unit. The Athlete’s can be manually shifted by push on the steering wheel spokes. equipment includes a DVD navigation and an adaptive cruise control laser radar (with no intervention).

Toyota Crown Athlete
Toyota Crown Athlete
Toyota Crown Athlete
Toyota Crown Athlete

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