Glossary of Terms: To

16 Июн 2015 | Author: | No comments yet »
Toyota Century II

Totalitarianism is the form of government in the ruling party penetrates the population and uncompromisingly enforces to the party line in every of life without exception.

The was coined by Mussolini in the early to describe his own fascist state in “All within the state, outside the state, none the state.” Victor Serge was the to use the term to describe Stalin’s Union, in a letter written in before his arrest by Stalin. regime is probably the most totalitarian regime in history, and arises from the fact it grew inside the party of the irreconcilable opposition . For this Stalinism lasted longer and was total than fascism. But and Stalinism shared in common (i) they rested on absolute and (ii) that they themselves on mass movements were able to extend the heart of every household.


Totality and Totalisation are used by Georg Lukбcs and Sartre to refer to the objective and processes whereby an entity, of a multiplicity of parts, constitutes as a totality or thing — either a or a thing-for-itself.

Sartre uses the in the first instance, of a painting, is made as a thing (or totality) by a act of the imagination, which makes all the of paint, etc. exist as a painting. As soon as it ceases to be at and maintained as a single thing, it to be a totality.

But more importantly, the totality is not a material thing, but a living or organisation, a social totality. For how does a “state” constitute as a single entity, recognised by and others as a single totality? process, which involves the activity of those who “inhabit” the (the state bureaucracy ), and who labour or social action has it in the first place (the forces who established the state and it in their actions), is a process is both subjective and objective. a self-consciousness and an act of recognition .

“Totalisation” is the the activity of living people, maintains a totality as such, which, to use Sartre’s term, it “erode” and disintegrate into its like any material object.

The of “totalisation” is often connected, by of Marxism, with concepts “grand narrative ,” and regarded by as oppressive, because it is connected, by with the concept of the proletariat as the subject of history,” and by Sartre the Communist Party as a “practico-inert ” of History. Nevertheless, the concept of does not have to be pushed to the in the way both these writers taken it.


Totyotism (or Toyota-ism) is the often used, by analogy Fordism and Taylorism. to refer to the culture and labour processes in Japan, the US, Europe and other capitalist countries in the latter of the twentieth century.

There are a of features of Japanese industrial which are specific to Japan and are not implied in the term “Toyotism”. features include the compliant unions which represent in the large Japanese industrial These enterprise unions are the of the purge of the Japanese Communist carried out by the US Occupation Forces in the Purge” in 1947-48. Public such as the railway workers and remained under militant A similar move was instituted by the forces in Germany as well. US for reconstruction as a bulwark against contributed to a rapid achievement of and industrial peace. Other of Japanese industry include a of factors associated with the of Japan as a defeated power and the for national reconstruction, as a relative to modern industry and its relatively feudal past, all of which to high levels of labour-management the practice of lifetime employment for employees and promotion according to in the major corporations. It should not be that inseparable from conditions which apply to of the big corporations is the condition of the majority of workers who are employed on low wages, on a casual basis with no security whatsoever.

This division of the workforce a relatively privileged, full-time secure core of loyal, skilled workers on one hand, and a of part-time casual, often or immigrant, labourers on the other, is one of the features of what is called . Toyotism depends on this of labour-management cooperation, multi-skilling and divisional problem solving, and the of such a culture is the first Concessions such as employment seniority-based wage systems, bonuses, regular promotion the shop-floor to senior management, as as management bonuses tied to the paid to blue-collar workers and a work ethic for white-collar and managers were used in to cultivate this spirit of

Toyota Century II

In part because the union of today may well be the manager of large firms generally union-management consultation over strategic decisions. They endeavour to elicit employee in day-to-day problem solving and improvements in the workplace. Quality and employee suggestion systems are Problems in product and technological are tackled by cross-functional teams.

Toyotism also alters the between buyer and seller. demanding of its suppliers just-on-time of components, the producer tirelessly its market for direction about the to be produced. Instead of producing a and then drumming up a market, the is found first, and then the produced to fill the demand.

is one of the largest automobile manufacturers in the It began in 1933 as a division of the Automatic Loom Works, and during the 1960s and ‘70s rapidly. From a negligible in 1950, Japan surpassed Germany, France, Great and the United States to become the leading automotive producer. the late 1970s and early Japan’s principal auto enjoyed such impressive gains in North American and European markets that were imposed on Japanese

The Japanese industrialists learnt the new to manufacture off the American management who were sent to help the Japanese economy under the Foremost among what the learnt were the theories of Mayo [George Elton Australian psychologist, born Professsor of Industrial Research at the Graduate School of Business author of The Human Problems of an Civilization ; died 1949]. The of Mayo’s theory was an experiment he between 1927 and 1932 at the plant of the Western Electric in Illinois. The drift of his discovery was a of placebo effect [the effect]: if workers believed were being consulted their work, then worked harder. It should be that there was nothing in theory which suggested workers actually had anything to contribute to organising production; his was solely concerned with workers.

The most illustrious pioneer of industrial methods was Ohno (1912 – 1990), Toyota’s expert, who devised the just-in-time ( kanban ) of manufacture, which Toyota from near in 1952 to become the third automobile maker in the world, General Motors and Ford. the unique conditions of post-war Taiichi was able to take theories further and workers’ in developing production methods beyond the “feel good” for which it was designed and gave a measure of autonomy to the Japanese autonomy of course that was on his absolute loyalty to the company.

methods allowed automation to be in a quite new way: instead of the workers’ role becoming and more abstract, workers responsible for the final product and numbers of highly skilled could achieve very levels of productivity, subjecting methods to continuous improvements. It is kind of labour, and its complement in the of the casual contract labourer the corporation’s core of permanent which began in the Toyota in Japan and provided the basis for the worker” of the postmodern world.

This kind of labour generates its own class structure: a class divided between a of very poor, utterly workers who have no job security or relationship with their on one side, and a core of skilled with relatively satisfying and good employment conditions on the At the same time, the boundaries commerce and production, manufacture and worker and manager, all become murky.

Toyota Century II
Toyota Century II
Toyota Century II

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