Electric Vehicles 19th Century to Today

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Toyota Century II

Electric Vehicles 19th to Today

New York City in

Early 1800s Steam travel becomes popular.

Americans begin installing tracks. Street cars are

1859 Gaston Plante the lead-acid battery . though not for transportation applications.

1880 Faure improves Plante’s by developing the grid-plate battery in leading to use with motor

1880 Several inventors and begin to produce basic powered by steam, gasoline, compressed air, hydraulics, . and anything else on hand in the United States and Europe, Europe is more advanced

1881 First experiments grid-plate batteries to power a horse streetcar,” conducted by Raffard.

1881 Charles begins working with Faure to build an electric system, which they with several motors the next decade.

1885 practical automobile . a gasoline-powered is in production in Europe: the one-cylinder, Benz.

1890 There are 64 streetcars in Europe, a small of the total fleet.

1891 Morrison builds the first automobile in the United States.

The Electric Vehicle Company producing Electrobat electric in New York, the first commercially-produced vehicles

1890 The Lohner-Porsche hybrid car is presented at the Paris Exposition. hybrid electric used gasoline and a battery, not regenerative

1900 In the United States, cars are produced this 1,681 steam cars, electric, and only 936 gasoline according to the U.S. Census. may be unrepresentative because of the number of taxis sold.

1900-1920 makes and models of electric, and hybrid electric vehicles commercially available  in the United

1904 More than a of all vehicles in New York, Boston, and are electric.

1908 Henry rolls out the Model T, a gas-powered car was mass produced, initially the car at $850 and serially reducing the until it reached $265 by

1912 Charles Kettering first practical electric eliminating an advantage that cars held over cars.

1929 Electric car to compete and fades out of popularity; charged higher fees for higher weight (due to they are limited to shorter with few charging stations, are not as At the same time the electric and cheap gasoline made gas more desirable.

1933-1945 A second, small of interest in electric cars in England and Europe, spurred by gas and World War II. German, French, and automakers produced a handful of vehicles. Small number of automakers produce electric for transport during gasoline

1949-1951 Tama Electric Company of Tokyo sells a electric car during Japanese shortage. However, when gas available again, the electric car is

1951-1953 The Symetric, a hybrid car, is made in France in the using plastic in the body.

Experiments in electric car include a fiberglass three-wheeler and a hybrid car with a nickel-cadmium battery, as as the more popular Enfield from England. Even so, 106 Enfields were built. builds an electric car, the

1966 First U.S. recommending electric vehicles.

Passing of California’s Clean Air Act a new era where the state takes of its own air quality standards

1970s the 70s several more electric that are designed, though not sold, including the AMC Electrosport, the Vanguard Citicar and the Elcar . Nissan makes the EV4P lead-acid and zinc-air batteries, Marathon Electric Car Company of makes hundreds of C-360 with six wheels and a foam-core body.

1972 Victor Wouk a hybrid from 1972 Skylark for Federal Clean Car Program . which is subsequently four years later.

California passes the Zero Vehicle Mandate in California, that 2% of all cars sold in the be zero emissions by ’98. The extended to 5% by 2001 . and 10% by 2003 .

General Motors introduces prototype car, the unfortunately-named

1990 There are 41 Stage I alerts in California or Los Angeles

Ford produces the Ecostar utility van with regenerative

1993 Toyota begins the Prius hybrid car, can’t be plugged in but uses a to capitalize on regenerative braking.

Electric cars hit California at the same time that the Utility Vehicle begins popularity

1996 The EV1 electric car General Motors becomes but only by lease, not for purchase. It plastic body panels with aluminum, low drag, and is for lease only.

1996 By this time, the metal-hydride battery has been to be large enough for a car, and technology is used in many cars sold today.

Toyota unveils the Prius car and begins sales in Japan.

Honda Insight hybrid car in United States.

1999 Prius arrives in California.

General Motors sues the Air Resources Board for the electric car quota. Other automakers the suit against California

2000 California’s AB 2076 state agencies to set goals to petroleum consumption.

2002 CA Assembly Bill 1493, greenhouse gas emissions.

Toyota Century II

2003 The new Prius released and becomes statement.

2003 Various kill the California electric car and automakers begin pulling electric vehicles off the road, in cases crushing or shredding the

2004 By this time, is only one General Motors EV1 on the roads.

2005 California’s AB establishes statewide alternative plan, reduce petroleum by 15% by 2020.

2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act . AB 32, sets limits on greenhouse gas to be achieved by 2020.

2006 By time almost all the electric on the road in California are gone.

2009 According to SB 17, the California Utilities Commission must smart grid deployment to integrate PEV technology, or plug-in technology.

2010 Nissan the first U.S. customer the . an electric car with 100 mile a lithium-ion battery, and regenerative

2011 The Tesla Roadster sports car is offered. It has a range of 245 but costs over $100,000.

By this time, hybrids are available from Honda, GM, Ford, Mitsubishi, Toyota, Lexus, GMC, Hyundai, Cadillac, Porsche, Volkswagon and Electric-only cars are available Nissan and Tesla, as well as neighborhood electric brands.

California Energy Commission out millions of dollars to studying electric vehicles and energy

2015 Date by which all auto-makers have announced to plug-in electric vehicles, allow “hybrid” cars regenerative braking to be charged by them in.

Click here to to simpler timeline.

Anderson, D. and Anderson, Judy. Electric and Cars: A History . North McFarland Company, Inc.

Mom, Gijs. The Electric . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 2004.

Taylor, Alex. “Toyota: the of the Prius.” Fortune Magazine . 21, 2006.

“Take Charge: California’s Leadership in the Plug-In Vehicle Marketplace.” California Electric Vehicle Collaborative

Andrew. “General Motors California Over Quota for Car Sales.” The New York Times . 24, 2001.

“Investment Plan for the and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Program,” California Energy April 2009.

DRIVE Alternative Renewable Fuel Technology Program.

Who Killed the Car . Sony Pictures Home November 14, 2006.

U.S. Information Administration

Toyota Century II
Toyota Century II
Toyota Century II
Toyota Century II


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