Hybrid Synergy Drive — Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Lexus ES 300hLexus

Principle [ edit ]

Toyota with cutaway view of HSD and generator

Toyota’s HSD system a normal geared transmission an electromechanical system. An internal engine (ICE) delivers most efficiently over a speed range, but the wheels to be driven over the vehicle’s speed range. In a conventional the geared transmission delivers discrete engine speed-torque requirements to the wheels. Geared may be manual, with a clutch. or with a torque converter. but allow the engine and the wheels to at different speeds. The driver can the speed and torque delivered by the with the accelerator and the transmission transmits nearly all of the available to the wheels which rotate at rate than the engine, by a equal to the gear ratio for the selected gear. However, are a limited number of gears or ratios that the driver can from, typically 4 to 6. This gear-ratio set, forces the crankshaft to rotate at speeds the ICE is less efficient, i.e. a liter of fuel produces joules. Optimal engine requirements for different vehicle and acceleration conditions can be gauged by either tachometer RPM rate or noise in comparison with speed. When an engine is to operate efficiently across a range of RPMs, due to its coupling to a transmission, manufacturers are limited in options for improving engine reliability, or lifespan, as well as the size or weight of the engine. is why the engine for an engine-generator is often smaller, more efficient, reliable, and longer life one designed for an automobile or other speed application.

However, a continuously variable allows the driver (or the automobile to effectively select the optimal ratio required for any desired or power. The transmission is not limited to a set of gears. This lack of frees the engine to operate at its (most efficient) speed ). The most efficient speed for an ICE is often around 1500-2000 rpm for the power required to propel an An HSD vehicle will typically run the at its optimal efficiency speed power is needed to charge or accelerate the car, shutting the engine entirely when power is required.

Like a CVT. an HSD transmission adjusts the effective gear between the engine and the wheels to the engine speed while the increase their rotational during acceleration. This is why describes HSD-equipped vehicles as an e-CVT ( electronic continuously transmission ) when required to the transmission type for standards lists or regulatory purposes.

Power flows [ edit ]

In the car design the alternator (AC generator) and (DC motor) are considered accessories are attached to the internal combustion (ICE) which normally a transmission to power the wheels the vehicle. A battery is used to start the car’s internal engine and run accessories when the is not running. The alternator is used to the battery and run the accessories when the is running.

The HSD system replaces the transmission, alternator and starter with:

MG1 . an AC motor-generator [ 7 ] having a magnet rotor, used as a when starting the ICE and as a generator acceleration

MG2 . an AC motor-generator also having a magnet rotor, used as the drive-regeneration motor

Power . including three DC-AC and two DC-DC converters

Computerized system and sensors

HVB a high battery releases electrical during acceleration and recovers during braking

Through the splitter, a series-parallel full HSD system thus allows for the intelligent power flows: [ 8 ]


HVB — DC-DC — 12VDC battery

battery — Various and automatic energy saving functions

Engine charge and/or heating catalytic and/or interior comfort


Battery or EV

HVB — MG2 — wheels

motor drive (Moderate

ICE — wheels

ICE — MG1 — MG2 —

Engine drive with (Highway driving)



Engine and drive with charge power situation such as in hills)

Lexus ES 300hLexus

ICE — wheels


ICE — MG1 — MG2 wheels

Full power or slowing (Maximum power

ICE — wheels

ICE — MG1 MG2 — wheels

HVB — MG2 wheels

B-mode braking

— MG2 -HVB

Wheels MG1 — ICE (ECU uses MG1 to ICE which drains battery allowing more charge MG2, and also links ICE to causing engine braking ICE RPM when charge level of HVB is too to accept regen electricity MG2, or increasing effort driver pushing the brake

Regenerative braking

wheels MG2 — HVB

Hard braking

disk/rear drum (rear in UK) — wheels

All disk wheels (2010 and newer).

Lexus ES 300hLexus
Lexus ES 300hLexus


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